A dynamic sustainable tourism evaluation using multiple benchmarks

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How to assess sustainable tourism is a critical issue. Many static sustainability measures have been proposed in the literature, however new dynamic methods are needed to grade the course towards the target of sustainable tourism. In this context, this paper presents a vectorial composite indicator, called Differential Dynamic Index (DDI), that is defined via two components: one dynamic, to graduate the evolution of the destination regarding its sustainability; and the other static, to relativise its position with respect to other territories, evaluating the status achieved in the social, economic and environmental parameters which affect the degree of sustainability. In order to improve other dynamic evaluations proposed, the DDI incorporates differentiated aspiration levels according to each destination's typology, identified via cluster analysis. This methodological modification guarantees an evaluation that is not biased by the differences existing between the destinations considered in each assessment, and facilitates the definition of more realistic and operational benchmarking practices, improving the existing static composite indicators proposed in the literature. Furthermore, we present a graphic tool called the Sustainable Tourism Evaluation Diagram to make the use of the information of the composite indicator easier. We also illustrate the potentials of the tools proposed via a case study of the coastal destinations of Andalusia (Spain).
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This work was supported by grant from the Andalusian Autonomous Regional Government [SEJ-6728] and partially funded by grants from the Andalusian Autonomous Regional Government [SEJ-332 and SEJ-417] and the Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness [ECO2016-76567 and ECO2015-68856-P].
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Blancas, F. J., Lozano-Oyola, M., González, M., & Caballero, R. (2018). A dynamic sustainable tourism evaluation using multiple benchmarks. Journal of cleaner production, 174, 1190-1203.
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