Plastics in Cyanobacterial Blooms—Genotoxic E ects of Binary Mixtures of Cylindrospermopsin and Bisphenols in HepG2 Cells

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Ever-expanding environmental pollution is causing a rise in cyanobacterial blooms and the accumulation of plastics in water bodies. Consequently, exposure to mixtures of cyanotoxins and plastic-related contaminants such as bisphenols (BPs) is of increasing concern. The present study describes genotoxic e ects induced by co-exposure to one of the emerging cyanotoxins—cylindrospermopsin (CYN)—(0.5 g/mL) and BPs (bisphenol A (BPA), S (BPS), and F (BPF); (10 g/mL)) in HepG2 cells after 24 and 72 h of exposure. The cytotoxicity was evaluated with an MTS assay and genotoxicity was assessed through the measurement of the induction of DNA double strand breaks (DSB) with the H2AX assay. The deregulation of selected genes (xenobiotic metabolic enzyme genes, DNA damage, and oxidative response genes) was assessed using qPCR. The results showed a moderate reduction of cell viability and induction of DSBs after 72 h of exposure to the CYN/BPs mixtures and CYN alone. None of the BPs alone reduced cell viability or induced DSBs. No significant di erence was observed between CYN and CYN/BPs exposed cells, except with CYN/BPA, where the antagonistic activity of BPA against CYN was indicated. The deregulation of some of the tested genes (CYP1A1, CDKN1A, GADD45A, and GCLC) was more pronounced after exposure to the CYN/BPs mixtures compared to single compounds, suggesting additive or synergistic action. The present study confirms the importance of co-exposure studies, as our results show pollutant mixtures to induce e ects di erent from those confirmed for single compounds.
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This research was funded by the Slovenian Research Agency [research core funding P1-0245, and PhD grant to Klara Hercog MR36321], and the PhD grant from the University of Seville to the Sara Maisanaba (VI PPIT, I.3A1, 2017) and the COST Actions ES1105 (Cyanobacterial blooms and toxins in water resources: Occurrence, impacts and management).
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Toxins 2020, 12, 219
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