Investigation of mechanisms of toxicity and exclusion by transporters of the preservatives triclosan and propylparaben using batteries of Schizosaccharomyces pombe strains

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Triclosan (TCS) and propylparaben (PPB) are antimicrobials widely used. They present many similarities in their applications and also in their human and environmental health risks. In order to investigate the mechanisms of toxic action and the efflux pumps involved in their detoxication, we used a strategy with batteries of Schizosaccharomyces pombe yeast strains, either defective in cell signalling, in detoxification pumps, or in cell surveillance mechanisms. Yeast were exposed up to 20 h in solid medium or in liquid medium in 96-well plates. The mechanisms of action investigated were spindle defects (mph1), stress (pmk1), DNA interference (rad3) or diverse effects (MDR-sup). The efflux pumps investigated were Bfr1, Pmd1, Mfs1 and Caf5 or the Pap1 transcription factor. Here we show that TCS was 75 times more toxic than PPB in the wild type fission yeast. More oxidative stress and less protection by exclusion pumps were observed for TCS than for PPB. The cytotoxicity produced by TCS decreased from bfr1>mfs1>pmd1 > pap1 and caf5A deficient strains. In contrast, cytotoxic concentrations of PPB caused only a mild stress. The protection provided for PPB by the transporters was more marked than for TCS, decreasing from Pmd1, Caf5, Mfs1 and Bfr1. Furthermore, microtubule and DNA interferences were revealed for PPB, according to the cytotoxicity of mph1 and rad3 defective cells, respectively. As both compounds present complex adverse effects at concentrations close to exposure, and their combination clearly causes a strong potentiation, more exhaustive controls and regulations in their use should be considered.
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Proyectos de investigación Proyecto Puente [grants CTM 2016- 76304-C2-1-R 2019-PPI1901 (VPPI-UPO) Consejería de Economía y Conocimiento (Junta de Andalucía, Spain) and Fondo Social Europeo [grant EJP48, 2017]
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Environmental Research 183 (2020) 108983
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