Políticas inter-culturales en la escuela: significados, disonancias y paradojas

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The school uses, for the attention of foreign students, different well-meaning devices that define and measure the difference, recognize its exclusionary potential and seek to address it through various intercultural and inclusive policies. This paper analyzes one of these devices: the Temporary Classroom of Linguistic Adaptation (TCLA). Its purpose is to detect possible disagreements between the pedagogical actions that these classrooms promote, and the logic that sustains and justifies them. In other words, the contradictions and paradoxes that can occur between their normative-political discourses and their apparently inclusive practices. This study, basically ethnographic, has taken as fundamental epistemological references the approach or ¿problematic of knowledge¿ and ¿critical interculturality¿. Through a series of field observations and interviews with the main actors involved, the aim is to learn about the practices derived from the application of this device, how they are valued and how the meaning of dual inclusion-exclusion is interpreted in multicultural educational contexts. Specifically, twenty-eight interviews were conducted with directors, TCLA teachers and young people of foreign origin from various schools in four provinces of Andalusia (Cádiz, Granada, Huelva and Seville). The results of their analysis reveal a set of discordances that invite us to question the intercultural and inclusive meaning of these specific classrooms. In most cases, their pedagogical support is merely compensatory. In reality, its primary objective is to normalize difference, understanding it as a double deficiency, cultural and curricular, that must be compensated or corrected. In schooling, systems of reason that assign identity to subjects operate, often quietly. Their effects are especially evident in devices, such as these parallel classrooms, associated with policies of equity and attention to cultural diversity. Even if they claim to respond to inclusive policies, they can encourage segregation, discrimination and exclusion.
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Proyecto ¿Construyendo diferencias en la escuela. Estudios de las trayectorias de las ATAL en Andalucía, de su profesorado y de su alumnado¿ (Ref. CSO2013-43266-R). Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad, Gobierno de España.
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Revista de Educación nº 387 Enero-Marzo 2020
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