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Teachers' well-being in times of Covid-19 pandemic: factors that explain professional well-being

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2020-07-29
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Universidad Pablo de Olavide
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This cross-sectional study was aimed to describe and analyse factors related to the professional well-being of Portuguese teachers during the COVID-19 pandemic. A previously validated, anonymous and online questionnaire was applied to a non-probabilistic sample of Portuguese teachers. In addition to the socio-demographic and professional variables, the questionnaire measured subjective and professional well-being, satisfaction with the education system and future perspectives regarding the professional circumstances. The psychometric characteristics of the questionnaire were analysed, the t-test and ANOVA were used to analyse the differences between the main variables and the socio-demographic and professional characteristics, along with the generalized linear model in order to more precisely determine the predicting factors of teachers' professional well-being. The results showed that the majority of respondents have a moderately positive perception of well-being. Teachers were satisfied with the education system before the pandemic. The pandemic has reduced the perception of well-being in the face of the profession, creating some concern among teachers about their professional future. Sex, length of service, well-being, perceptions of teaching difficulties and future perspectives proved to be predictors of professional well-being in times of pandemic. This study provided scientific bases for the development of interventions that improve the professional well-being of teachers, which focus on emotional management and the development of digital skills in teachers with long careers. This piece of research concluded with thorough evidence that there is a need for further and stronger investment in public policies for the reform and, consequently, for the renewal of the teaching class.
El objetivo de este estudio transversal fue describir y analizar factores relacionados con el bienestar profesional de los docentes portugueses durante la pandemia de COVID-19. Se aplicó un cuestionario validado, anónimo y en línea a una muestra no probabilística de docentes portugueses. Además de las variables sociodemográficas y profesionales, el cuestionario midió el bienestar subjetivo y profesional, la satisfacción con el sistema educativo y las perspectivas futuras con respecto a las circunstancias profesionales. Se analizaron las características psicométricas del cuestionario, se utilizó la prueba t y ANOVA para analizarlas diferencias entre las principales variables y las características sociodemográficas y profesionales, junto con el modelo lineal generalizado para determinar con mayor precisión los factores predictores de Bienestar profesional de los docentes. Los resultados mostraron que la mayoría de los encuestados tienen una percepción moderadamente positiva del bienestar. Los docentes estaban satisfechos con el sistema educativo antes de la pandemia. La pandemia ha reducido la percepción de bienestar frente a la profesión, creando cierta preocupación entre los docentes sobre su futuro profesional. El sexo, la duración del servicio, el bienestar, las percepciones de las dificultades de enseñanza y las perspectivas futuras demostraron ser predictores del bienestar profesional en tiempos de pandemia. Este estudio proporcionó bases científicas para el desarrollo de intervenciones que mejoran el bienestar profesional de los docentes, que se centran en el manejo emocional y el desarrollo de habilidades digitales en docentes con largas carreras. Esta investigación concluyó con evidencia exhaustiva de que existe la necesidad de una mayor y más fuerte inversión en políticas públicas para la reforma y, en consecuencia, para la renovación de la clase docente.
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IJERI: International journal of Educational Research and Innovation, ISSN-e 2386-4303, n. 15, 2021, págs. 203-217
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