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Violencia escolar: Un análisis desde los diferentes contextos de interacción

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2013
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Colegio Oficial de Pisicólogos de Madrid
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El objetivo del presente estudio es analizar las diferencias entre adolescentes con alta y baja violencia escolar en los ámbitos individual (autoestima, soledad, satisfacción con la vida, estrés y empatía), familiar (clima familiar y comunicación con la madre y el padre), escolar (clima social en el aula, actitudes hacia la autoridad y estatus sociométrico) y comunitario (integración comunitaria, participación comunitaria, apoyo de los sistemas informales y de los formales). Además, se examinaron las diferencias entre chicos y chicas con alta violencia escolar en estas relaciones. Participaron 1723 adolescentes de ambos sexos, de entre 12 y 18 años, escolarizados en cuatro centros de educación secundaria obligatoria. Se efectuaron análisis multivariados y univariados de la varianza (MANOVA y ANOVA). Los resultados mostraron que los adolescentes con alta violencia escolar obtuvieron mayores puntuaciones que los adolescentes con baja violencia en soledad, sintomatología depresiva, estrés, comunicación ofensiva y evitativa con la madre y el padre, conflicto familiar y actitud hacia la transgresión. Además, las chicas con alta violencia mostraron mayores puntuaciones en autoestima académica, empatía y estatus sociométrico y menores en comunicación abierta con el padre y participación comunitaria que los chicos. Finalmente, se discuten los resultados y sus implicaciones prácticas.
The aim of the current study was to analyze the differences between adolescents scoring high and low on school violence in the following areas: individual (self-esteem, loneliness, satisfaction with life, and empathy); family (family climate, communication with father and mother); academic (classroom climate, attitudes toward authority, and sociometric status); and community (community involvement, community participation, social support from formal systems, and social support from informal systems). Differences in these relationships between boys and girls scoring high on school violence were also examined. Participants in the study were 1723 adolescents, aged 12 to 18 years old, in four secondary schools. Multivariate and univariate analysis of variance were performed. Results showed that adolescents with high levels of school violence scored higher on loneliness, depressive symptomatology, offensive and avoidance communication with father and mother, family conflict, and attitude towards transgression, as compared to adolescents with low levels of school violence. Furthermore, girls scoring high on school violence reported higher scores on academic self-esteem, empathy, and sociometric status, and lower scores on open communication with father and community participation, as compared to boys scoring high in school violence. Finally, these results and their practical implications are discussed.
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Psychosocial Intervention 22 (2013) 25-32
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