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  • Publication
    Cimarronaje, jurisdicción y lealtades híbridas en la Monarquía Hispánica
    (Editorial de la Universidad de Cantabria, 2020-12) Díaz Ceballos, Jorge
    Este trabajo analiza las negociaciones de paz entre las comunidades de esclavos fugados y las autoridades coloniales en el istmo de Panamá durante la segunda mitad del siglo xvi. A pesar de que los cimarrones habían acumulado varias identidades contrapuestas, el asentamiento en pueblos y la cesión jurisdiccional permitió a la Monarquía Hispánica negociar su lealtad, pacificar el territorio y contener la amenaza de corsarios ingleses. En el texto se exploran los límites de la cultura política de la Monarquía a través de la creación de una jurisdicción mixta que implicaba la incorporación de comunidades rebeldes como actores políticos legítimos.
  • Publication
    Dietary continuity and change at Panama Viejo from an interdisciplinary perspective, C. 600-1671
    (Elsevier, 2021-12) Martín, Juan Guillermo; Aceituno, Francisco Javier; Rivera-Sandoval, Javier; Knipper, Corina; Hernández, Iosvany; Aram, Bethany
    The study of food consumption during the colonial period in Panama Viejo traditionally has been based on chronicles and archival documentation. The present analysis reassesses the historical information about diet in this colonial enclave based on microbotanical, isotopic and bioanthropological evidence obtained from the excavations within and outside the remains of the old city¿s Cathedral in two locations and four chronological periods to complement and contrast written sources. The ensuing data sets, once integrated, point to the consumption of native plants, particularly maize, among people of different ancestral origins from the settlement¿s earliest years, as well as the consumption of wheat ¿ which could not be grown in the region ¿ plantains and rice, whose cultivation was introduced successfully. Stable isotope evidence indicates a shift from dietary strategies based on maize, seafood and terrestrial animal meat in pre-Hispanic and early colonial times to diets featuring more C3 plants, including rice, wheat, and plantains, as well beef and dairy products during the later colonial period. This gradual shift in dietary strategies appears among individuals of Indigenous American, African, European and mixed origins and ancestries, probably influenced by the nutritional and epidemiological stress registered in all of these populations.
  • Publication
    Memoirs of the Fruits of Globalization: The Markets for Chinese Textiles in New Spain by Jean de Monségur
    (Palgrave Studies in Comparative Global History / Palgrave Macmillan, 2021-03-01) Fernandez-de-Pinedo, Nadia; Pérez-García, Manuel
    A revealing report produced by the French intelligence services of the beginning of eighteenth-century explores the production of luxury and fashion commodities and their distribution on a global scale. According to Jean de Monségur the main competitors in New Spain arrived through China commercial routes. On one hand, we intend to explore if the trade market in Mexico was reflecting or not European fashions, in particular French fashion so in vogue among European elites. On the other hand, some cultural aspects must be taking into account to discern how entangled Europe, Asia and the Americas were in 1700s underlying economic prestige and social status as in Europe. How cultural and symbolic message matters? Was New Spain contributing to develop an emerging hybrid consumer society?
  • Publication
    American Globalization, 1492-1850. Trans-Cultural Consumption in Spanish Latin America
    (Routledge, 2021-06-29) Yun Casalilla, Bartolomé; Berti, Ilaria; Svriz-Wucherer, Omar;
    Following a study on the world flows of American products during early globalization, here the authors examine the reverse process. By analyzing the imperial political economy, the introduction, adaptation and rejection of new food products in America, as well as of other European, Asian and African goods, American Globalization, 1492¿1850, addresses the history of consumerism and material culture in the New World, while also considering the perspective of the history of ecological globalization. This book shows how these changes triggered the formation of mixed imagined communities as well as of local and regional markets that gradually became part of a global economy. But it also highlights how these forces produced a multifaceted landscape full of contrasts and recognizes the plurality of the actors involved in cultural transfers, in which trade, persuasion and violence were entwined. The result is a model of the rise of consumerism that is very different from the ones normally used to understand the European cases, as well as a more nuanced vision of the effects of ecological imperialism, which was, moreover, the base for the development of unsustainable capitalism still present today in Latin America.
  • Publication
    Big Data and "New" Global History: Global Goods and Trade Networks in Early Modern China and Europe
    (Cambridge University Press, 2021-12-21) Pérez-García, Manuel; Wang, Li; Svriz-Wucherer, Omar; Fernandez-de-Pinedo, Nadia; Diaz-Ordoñez, Manuel
    This paper introduces an innovative method applied to global (economic) history using the tools of digital humanities through the design and development of the GECEM Project Database (www.gecem.eu; www.gecemdatabase.eu). This novel database goes beyond the static Excel files frequently used by conventional scholarship in early modern history studies to mine new historical data through a bottom-up process and analyse the global circulation of goods, consumer behaviour, and trade networks in early modern China and Europe. Macau and Marseille, as strategic entrepôts for the redistribution of goods, serve as the main case study. This research is framed within a polycentric approach to analyse the connectivity of south Chinese and European markets with trade zones of Spain, France, South America, and the Pacific.
  • Publication
    European Imperialism, War, Strategic Commodities and Ecological Limits: The Diffusion of Hemp in Spanish South America and Its Ghost Fibers 1
    (Routledge, 2021-06-29) Diaz-Ordoñez, Manuel; Pérez-García, Manuel
    Early globalization travelled in cordages and ships' sails made with thousands of tons of European hemp. The new American geographies could have served to increment its cultivation, increasing what Pomeranz defines as ghost acreage, to supply the huge demand for European cannabis. The sources for Spanish America show, in fact, a firm will to increase the cultivation of hemp to be used in naval vessels. However, a wide historical record of failures and frustrations seems incompatible with classical explanations such as European mercantilist resistance to the crop¿s transfer to the Americas. Therefore, it seems reasonable to turn to other scientific disciplines, including botany and agronomy, in order to reinterpret the scarce introduction of hemp cultivation in South America.
  • Publication
    From Goods to Commodities in Spanish America: Structural Changes and Ecological Globalization From the Perspective of the European History of Consumption
    (Routledge, 2021-06-29) Yun Casalilla, Bartolomé
    This chapter shows that the introduction of Eurasian and African products in Latin America should be understood as one more phase in a longer wave of globalization across Eurasia, which had one of its pillars in the so-called medieval Islamic green revolution, of which Iberia was a cross-roads. Contrary to the model of ecological imperialism established by Crosby, the idea is defended that American globalization also meant the rise of very dynamic and hybrid ecosystems that would produce a new equilibrium and economic growth. The result is a more nuanced and constructive conception of ecological imperialism, which implied, on the other hand, a qualitative leap in the history of humanity that made America the main stage and the laboratory for the long-run development of unsustainable forms of exploitation. The complex mechanisms of diffusion and rejection of those products are also studied to underline how violence is inseparable from commerce or persuasion, as well as to what extent they are linked to deep social structural changes. The outcome is a path to consumerism that differs from the models normally used to understand what happened in Europe and a proposal to understand the history of consumption as inextricably associated with ecological history.
  • Publication
    "That in the Reducciones Had Been Noise of Weapons...": The Introduction of Firearms in the Seventeenth-Century Jesuit Missions of Paraguay
    (Routledge, 2021-06-29) Svriz-Wucherer, Omar; Pérez-García, Manuel
    This study aims to analyze the introduction of firearms in the Jesuit reductions of Paraguay during the seventeenth century. Examination of monarchy's sources will highlight the establishment of different intermediaries and mechanisms generated by Jesuits in order to furnish firearms to Guaraní natives. Furthermore, this chapter examines the obstacles that arose in this process of distributing firearms: the fathers of the Society of Jesus clashed, in fact, with the Spanish monarchy over the topic of firearm possession, a circumstance that conditioned the training and formation of the Guaraní militias during this period. The objective of this chapter is, therefore, to investigate the effectiveness of the defense of one border in the Spanish empire, developing a model that could be applied to other colonial spaces.
  • Publication
    Introduction
    (Routledge, 2021-06-21) Yun Casalilla, Bartolomé
    This introduction summarizes the main ideas that this book develops, which are central to understanding American globalization from the perspective of the history of consumption. It points out the relevant role of states and political economies, maybe greater than in Europe, in the distribution and introduction of European, Asian and African products in the New World, which partly explains why this process is characterized by the combination of coercion, commercial transactions and emulation. But this research also emphasizes the agency of the original American peoples in the hybridization of consumption patterns resulting from the conquest and colonization, as well as the relevance of "horizontal" relationships among the subalterns themselves, due especially to the crucial role played by enslaved populations of African origin. However, the interactions among so many populations led not to homogeneous fusion but instead to great social and regional disparities. Given the depth and dramatic character of the transformations underway, these changes in consumption patterns must also be associated with profound alterations in the original ecosystems.
  • Publication
    Blood, Land and Power. The Rise and Fall of the Spanish Nobility and Lineages in the Early Modern Period
    (University of Wales Press, 2021-04-01) Pérez-García, Manuel
    The analysis of land management, lineage and family through the case study of early modern Spanish nobility from sixteenth to early nineteenth century is a major issue in recent historiography. It aims to shed light on how upper social classes arranged strategies to maintain their political and economic status. Rivalry and disputes between old factions and families were attached to the control and exercise of power. Blood, land management and honour were the main elements in these disputes. Honour, service to the Crown, participation in the conquest and "pure" blood (Catholic affiliation) were the main features of Spanish nobility. This book analyses the origins of the entailed-estate (mayorazgo) from medieval times to early modern period, as the main element that enables us to understand the socio-economic behaviour of these families over generations. This longue durée chronology within the Braudelian methodology of the research aims to show how strategies and family networks changed over time, demonstrating a micro-history study of daily life.
  • Publication
    Postal networks and global letters in Cartagena de Indias: the overseas mail in the Spanish empire in the eighteenth century
    (Taylor&Francis / Routledge, 2021-08-19) Moreno Cabanillas, Rocío; Pérez-García, Manuel
    In the eighteenth century, all European colonial empires undertook the task of institutionalising their postal systems. Within the framework of the Bourbon reforms, the Spanish monarchy embarked upon reforming the postal system within the Spanish America with the aim of making transatlantic communications more reliable and regular. These plans, however, were hampered by an ongoing power struggle between all agents with a stake in the circulation of information. This is clearly reflected in the postal office in Cartagena de Indias, which was a key node for the Crown and a point of confluence for the strategies and interests of different local and global powers; the office, therefore, represented the polyhedric reality of postal communication. This paper shows that the institution had its own agency by constituting one of the main power tools, which is a reflection of the close relationship that exists between empire and communication.
  • Publication
    Beyond the Silk Road: Manila Galleons, trade networks, global goods, and the integration of Atlantic and Pacific markets (1680-1840)
    (Taylor&Francis / Routledge, 2021-08-19) Pérez-García, Manuel
    This project offers a comparative and polycentric approach to the connection of trade nodes in the Asian, American, African, and European markets in the early modern period. These analyses reevaluate the great divergence debate by presenting new case studies at the local scale and observing the impact of global goods and changes in consumer behaviour connecting local markets of the Pacific and Atlantic area. In this manner, we explore the circulation and consumption of Chinese goods in the Americas and in Europe, as well as in the African slave market through the Royal Company of the Philippines. Conversely, we also analyse the impact of the introduction of Western goods (of American and European origin) into China.
  • Publication
    Compelled to import: Cuban consumption at the dawn of the nineteenth century
    (Taylor&Francis / Routledge, 2021-08-19) Fernandez-de-Pinedo, Nadia; Pérez-García, Manuel
    One of the sources that allow us to analyse certain consumption patterns are trade balances. These documents are especially relevant in the case of island colonies, such as Cuba, that depended on the outside world for many kinds of supplies, not just the basic ones. Despite their limitations, data on imported goods from Havana's balance of trade at the dawn of the nineteenth century allow us to examine the consumer goods that were most in demand in Cuba at that time. This essay uses that information to emphasise the relationship between colony and metropole in terms of material culture, with a particular focus on the core items of food, clothing and household goods. Overall, patterns of consumption reflect patterns of production and imports.
  • Publication
    The Jesuit Global networks of exchange of Asian goods: A "conflictive" musk load around the middle of the seventeenth century
    (Taylor&Francis / Routledge, 2021-08-19) Svriz-Wucherer, Omar; Pérez-García, Manuel
    In 1648, a Portuguese ship that left Macau sank off the coast of the Philippines. The local authorities in Manila confiscated and sold all of its goods. This led to a dispute with the Jesuits, who claimed a certain amount of musk belonging to the Vice Province of China, the sale of which would support their religious mission. This article offers an analysis of this event, focusing on the dispute between the mentioned parties, but also as an example of the complex global networks of goods exchanges and economic interests in these regions of Southeast Asia in the middle of the seventeenth century.
  • Publication
    Global trafficking and local bankruptcies: Anglo-Spanish slave trade in the Rio de la Plata, 1786-1790
    (Taylor&Francis / Routledge, 2021-08-19) Ibarra, Antonio
    This research focuses on the operations of the Royal Company of the Philippines in the global market, in particular on the slave trade between Africa and Spanish America, as a way to examine the local dimensions of global trade. It identifies the causes and consequences of a failed venture that, despite its failure, opened a new cycle in the Río de la Plata slave trade and its place in the global economy of the late eighteenth century.
  • Publication
    The economic "micro-cosmos" of Canton as a global entrepôt: Overseas trade, consumption and the Canton System from the Kangxi to Qianlong eras (1683-1795)
    (Taylor&Francis / Routledge, 2021-08-19) Pérez-García, Manuel; Jin, Lei
    Due to China's ongoing economic rise, recent studies in global (economic) history have moved away from the traditional Eurocentric view to a Sinocentric one. There is extensive literature focused on the introduction of Chinese goods to Europe, as well as on China's economic development within the framework of the great divergence debate. However, less research has centred on the introduction of European goods to Chinese markets, specifically the markets in Guangdong or other coastal regions (such as Fujian, Zhejiang and Jiangsu), before the First Opium War. This paper aims to side-step the Sinocentric approach, eschewing the current wave of national history in China, by analysing the international trade in Qing China from the Kangxi era until the Qianlong period. It provides new empirical evidence from the First Historical Archives of China (FHAC) by examining the impact on global trade of China's imperial edicts and interventionist policies.
  • Publication
    Chapter 6. Implementing the Asiento and Smuggling: A Perspective from the Isthmus of Panama and Pacific South America
    (Routledge, 2021-11) García Montón, Alejandro
    This chapter adopts an intra-imperial, Spanish American perspective to understand how Domenico Grillo's factors operated this new monopolistic asiento trade on the ground. It focuses on the Isthmus of Panama and Pacific South America, the most coveted trading areas for the company and where most African captives were brought. The chapter examines the unprecedented privileges wielded by the company's factors, which triggered the fierce opposition of local players, including other slave traders, tax-farmers, and political leaders. It shows that Grillo's factors expanded the company's reach by challenging the privileges of the Sevillian and Lima consulados, smuggling and venturing into trading areas that exceeded the limits of the asiento charter, like Peru. Yet, these pages show in detail that Grillo's factors could only enter these trading spheres with the cooperation of other Spanish American merchants, middlemen, and political authorities who rapidly started to benefit from the asiento trade. These processes heralded future dynamics of competition and collaboration between other asiento companies and local players. The collective and disputed construction of the asiento trade on the ground bolstered a solid commercial and relational space linking the Spanish Indies to other empires in the Atlantic world and global trade circuits.
  • Publication
    La materialidad de la muerte en arqueología. Un enfoque teórico integrado desde la complejidad, la interacción social y la agencia
    (2019) Hernández Mora, Iosvany
    Este artículo presenta una discusión de la materialidad en arqueología, y específicamente en el estudio de la muerte, a partir del enfoque de la complejidad y la teoría de los patrones de interacción social, que involucran la concepción de agencia. Desde la indicidad de los patrones de interacción se proponen los causes analíticos de los aspectos que posibilitan la caracterización de la dinámica del fenómeno de la muerte en sociedades asimétricas (coloniales), como parte de los cambios que sufren los regímenes de práctica. La necesidad de considerar la agencia y cómo se estima su comportamiento en el ámbito de los artefactos, la acción humana y los espacios construidos, es crucial para explicar las dimensiones involucradas en los contextos de interacción social.
  • Publication
    Entre príncipes de la libertad y vecinos leales: la revuelta de los Contreras y la defensa de Panamá en 1550
    (Centre de Recherches sur les Mondes Américains, 2018) Díaz Ceballos, Jorge
    En este trabajo se analiza el ataque de los hermanos Contreras a la ciudad de Panamá en abril de 1550 y la organización de la defensa de la ciudad por parte de los vecinos. A través de los testimonios dejados por los protagonistas, tanto atacantes como defensores, se trazará una interpretación de la creación de una memoria colectiva de la comunidad que reforzaría la identidad corporativa. Los relatos de los individuos que participaron en la acción ofrecen un contrapunto a la narrativa tradicional con la cual se ha interpretado este episodio. Con ello, a través del análisis de los hechos y del lenguaje político implicado en ellos, se busca considerar las posibilidades heurísticas de los conflictos políticos para analizar los procesos de definición de la lealtad y la obediencia entre la Corona y las comunidades locales de la Monarquía Hispánica.
  • Publication
    Intentional dental modification in Panamá: New support for a late introduction of African origin
    (2020-12) Smith-Guzmán, Nicole E.; Rivera-Sandoval, Javier; Sánchez Arias, Ginés Alberto; Knipper, Corina
    Intentional dental modification is a widespread practice in both ancient and modern populations. In Panama, the modern practice is restricted to the Ngäbe indigenous people inhabiting the western provinces. Several researchers have posited that Ngäbe dental modification evidences cultural transfer of African origin due to the absence of post-contact records of this practice in the region, and based on the chipping technique used to create a pointed tooth shape. In this paper, we collate bioarchaeological data from human remains recovered from pre-contact and early colonial period contexts in Panama to evaluate this hypothesis. The results of our study found no evidence for intentional dental modification among the pre-contact sample, but several instances of artificially modified incisor teeth among the early colonial sample. The latter pertained exclusively to individuals of African ancestry, and whose teeth had been chipped to points in the same manner as reported from Ngäbe communities. Isotope data revealed that one individual was a first-generation immigrant who likely originated from the African continent. Based on these results, as well as an exhaustive review of the ethnohistorical and modern ethnographic literature, the original hypothesis of a late introduction of African origin for the practice of dental shaping among the Ngäbe was upheld.