PublicationSpecific Vulnerability as a Result of Non-integration of Science and Technology into International Development Cooperation Policies The case of the 12th January 2010 Haiti Earthquake.(Global Risk Forum GRF Davos Promenade 35 CH-7270 Davos Platz http://www.grforum.org http://www.planet-risk.org, 2014-08) Zango-Pascual, Marga; Marín Hidalgo, Isabel; Asensio Barragán, ClaudiaWhile much was known about the vulnerability of Haitian society at the time of the earthquake in 2010, this paper aims to focus on a specific aspect of this vulnerability. With hindsight, recommendations will be made with a view to increasing resilience in the face of disasters to come, anda vindication will be made of the positive role that science and technology can play in risk management of disasters. Five types of vulnerability are normally considered: financial, natural, human, physical and social. It is essential to study the damage caused by the lack of integration of scientific knowledge and good technological practice since it can contribute to the mitigating the magnitude of a disaster. UN, EU and the Spanish government‟s cooperation policies with Haiti, both before and after the earthquake, have been closely analyzed in order to assess whether or not the seismic hazard and the measures put into place to mitigate and prepare for it had been taken into consideration in these policies. This research comes from the co-authors‟ B.A in Environmental Science dissertations, supervised by Dr. Marga Zango-Pascual. The conclusion was drawn that not only was scientific knowledge about seismic risks easily obtained, but that it already existed before the earthquake ever occurred. However, many of the policies that were analyzed were biased and therefore could not be used because they were lacking both scientific and technological information. Consequently, Haiti‟s vulnerability increased because seismic building codes were not compulsory in most of the development cooperation projects. PublicationOpportunities and Weaknesses in the Application of Science and Technology in DRR with a View to Improving Governance. A Case Study. European Legislation on Environmental Liability.(Global Risk Forum GRF Davos Promenade 35 CH-7270 Davos Platz http://www.grforum.org http://www.planet-risk.org, 2014-08) Zango-Pascual, MargaNatural disasters tend to give rise to changes in the law from corrective rather than prospective stances. European legislation on environmental liability warrants examination in this regard. Reaction to two grave disasters in Europe, such as the ERIKA oil tanker disaster off the coast of France and the Aznalcollar dam failure in Spain led the European Union to begin legislating in this respect in the year 2000, firstly with the European Commission’s White Paper on Environmental Liability, and then with the European Parliament and Council of Europe’s Directive 2004/35/CE on environmental liability with respect to the prevention and remedying of environmental damage. To varying extents of development and effectiveness, European countries have transposed this Directive into their own national legislation. However, in practical terms and in conjunction with other issues, it is not as easy to implement as was intended because it converges and interacts with their own existing sectorial legislation that has similar objectives. The global economic crisis has also curtailed the directive’s legislative development. What should have been a golden opportunity for the prevention of environmental disasters and demand for liability in line with the “polluter pays” principle is not is not reaping the expected results. Analyzing this case and specifically the obstacles encountered in applying the legislation, firstly from a European standpoint and then focusing specifically on Spain, is of interest to be able to appraise governance recommendations in the light of HFA2 objectives. If this type of legislation were properly applied with all the scientific and technical input entailed, it would be a valuable tool for increasing resilience in public and private investment.