PublicationA multiplier evaluation of primary factors supply-shocks(2017-02) Sancho, Ferrán; Cardenete, Manuel Alejandro; Lima Díaz, M. CarmenDemand-side multipliers have ruled within multisectoral models as the main indicators for policy effectiveness and key-sector determination. The causal link between new exogenous final demand and responded endogenous total output is well understood and has been the basis for such a prevalent demand-side analysis both in linear interindustry analysis and in non-linear applied general equilibrium models. In this paper we shift the perspective to supply-side injections and we do so by studying the repercussion effects of marshalling additional primary factors, labor and capital services, which are injected into the economy and give rise to a general resource reallocation. As a result, we obtain estimates of supply multipliers that provide complementary information to standard demand multipliers. We illustrate the methodology using an empirical general equilibrium model built with the most recent data for the region of Andalusia, Spain. PublicationThe role of human capital in pre-industrial societies: Skills and earnings in eighteenth-century Castile (Spain)(2016-07) Álvarez, Begoña; Ramos Palencia, FernandoUsing the Ensenada Cadastre, a unique database on Castilian households circa 1750, we measure the effect of human capital on the structure of male labor earnings. Human capital is proxied by individual indicators of basic skills (literacy and numeracy) and of occupational skills. We employ a Mincerian regression approach and find that, on average, workers with greater skills earned more than otherwise similar workers with lesser skills. This finding is robust to the inclusion of additional controls for age, household composition, job characteristics, and place of residence. Estimated returns were larger for urban than for rural workers and were strongly heterogeneous across activity sectors. The richness of our data set reveals that higher-skilled workers not only reaped positive rewards in their main jobs but also were more likely to diversify and increase their earnings through ¿by-employment¿. However, not all workers benefited to the same degree from increased human capital. Quantile regression analysis shows that earnings disparities between workers with different skills were much smaller at the lower than at the upper end of the earnings distribution. This evidence indicates that, in pre-industrial Castile, human capital contributed to earnings (and income) inequality. PublicationFemale labor force participation, inequality and household well-being in the Second Globalization. The Spanish case(2016-06) Rodríguez-Modroño, Paula ; Matus-Lopez, Mauricio ; Gálvez-Muñoz, LinaThe 20th century has witnessed an increase in the female participation force in Western countries, especially since 1940s. Explanations behind the more intensive use of female labour are of different nature: globalization forces, the relative female/male wage linked to an increase in education and productivity, the tertiarization of the economy, and other institutional and cultural factors that allow women to control fertility, invest in assets other than the family ones and alter female bargaining power. Since these phenomena are complex and might respond to specific reasons and timing in different countries, it is important to advance on country case studies in a comparative basis. While in other Western countries the increase in female labor participation started to be significant in the 1960s and 1970s, Spanish female activity rates started to rise dramatically in the 1980s, concurrently with the deep integration of Spain in international markets, especially through the entry in the European Union in 1986. In this paper, we will analyze the reasons behind the decalage in female labor force participation in Spain after WWII in comparison with other Western countries, and the subsequent catching up from the 1980s in order to determine the level of influence of Spanish integration in international markets, as well as other economic, institutional and cultural factors. PublicationComparing Income and Wealth Inequality in Pre-Industrial economies. Lessons from Spain in the 18th century(2016-05) Nicolini, Esteban; Ramos Palencia, FernandoResearch on the history of inequality in pre-industrial economies has focused mainly on either wealth or income inequality. The most common problem with wealth inequality is the lack information about the bottom of the distribution while the main problem with income inequality is the lack of data to characterize the top of the distribution. Given that in general these approaches are based in different kinds of sources and methodologies, the results are not easy to compare and the links between the two distributions are difficult to establish. In this paper we use a unique data set for different regions of Spain circa 1750 and present results (the first for any pre-20th century economy) of inequality of both income and wealth for the same sample of households. Information of wealth comes from probate inventories while information of income comes from the Ensenada Cadastre. The main results of the paper are that poor households are not completely absent from our data set of inventories, that the position of a household in the distribution of income is closely associated to its position in the distribution of wealth and that an increase of a household¿s wealth is associated to a less-than-proportional increase in the household¿s income. PublicationThe hidden role of women in family firms(2015-12) Rodríguez-Modroño, Paula ; Agenjo-Calderón, Astrid; Gálvez-Muñoz, LinaWomen have historically played an important hidden role in family firms, and a great deal of research is now shedding light on this role. In spite of the more formal nature of their work in the present day, still a considerable volume of women¿s contributions remains invisible to official statistics. This study, based on interviews with over 500 women in small and medium family firms, brings this informal work into view, quantifying it in terms of hours worked and monetary value, exploring the reasons for its informality and examining the risks and precariousness it entails. PublicationA unifying framework for the problem of adjudicating conflicting claims(Universidad Pablo de Olavide. Departamento de Economía, Métodos Cuantitativos e Historia Económica, 2012-01-17) Hougaard, Jens L.; Moreno-Ternero, Juan D.; Osterdal, Lars P.In a recent paper, Thomson and Yeh [Operators for the adjudication of conflicting claims, Journal of Economic Theory 143 (2008) 177-198] introduced the concept of operators on the space of rules for the problem of adjudicating conflicting claims. They focussed on three operators in order to uncover the structure of such a space. In this paper, we generalize their analysis upon presenting and studying a general family of operators inspired by three apparently unrelated approaches to the problem of adjudicating conflicting claims. We study the structural properties of this family and show, in particular, that most of Thomson and Yeh¿s results are specific cases of our study.