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  • Publication
    Theorising gender voting gaps through Gender Positional Deprivation.
    (2023-09) Ruiz Jiménez, Antonia María; Ortiz Barquero, Pablo; Zambrana Pérez, Rafael
    This paper presents a theoretical framework to help us understand voting for Right-Wing Populist Parties (RWPP) in a gendered way, including an explanation for the gender gap and why women vote for this kind of party. Women's vote for RWPP is considered a puzzle due to these parties' antigender discourse (among others, Dietze & Roth, 2020a; Spierings, 2020) and the subsequent assumption of scholars that women voting for RWPP vote against their own female interests. Most existent theories explain much better why men vote for RWPP than they can explain female vote. We aligned with the policy review Past, Present and Future of Democracy (European Commission, 2019: 10), which pointed out that "it is above all the electoral success of mostly right-wing populism which challenges the liberal dimension of representative democracies", and see the increasing electoral success of RWPP as the "organisational manifestations of a significant discontent of citizens" in which socioeconomic polarisation progressively intertwines with issues of cultural identity (20). The role of RWPP in channelling dissatisfaction with democracy, however, may have both negative and positive effects. The publication asks for better research on key aspects, particularly identifying the structural causes underlying RWPP's increasing electoral success. But critically, this policy review (European Commission, 2019), as most of the current literature, fails to recognise gender as a particular dimension of partisan competition, polarisation or as an explanatory variable of voting behaviour, even though the notable gender gap in voting for RWPP is rightly pointed out. We affirm that voting for RWPP cannot be satisfactorily explained if the gender gap is not thoroughly accounted for.
  • Publication
    Theorising gender voting gaps. Do 'feminism losers' vote for right-wing populist parties?
    (2023-06) Ruiz Jiménez, Antonia María
    Right-wing populist parties explicitly appeal to voters as "feminism losers", both male and female. These parties blame feminism, or “gender ideology”, for the modification of traditional gender roles that have accompanied Western societies' economic, social and cultural transformations. This paper tries to theoretically define who might feel like a 'feminism losers' and therefore feel appealed to by the antigender/antifeminist messages of right-wing populist parties. It also tries to develop the operationalisation of the concept to translate into an international survey to be carried out in Spain, the United Kingdom, Germany, Denmark, Sweden and Hungary. The hypothesis that those who think of themselves as 'losers of feminism' might vote for right-wing populist parties stands in clear contrast to the hypothesis of the 'losers of globalization' or ‘losers of modernization’. The 'feminism losers' hypothesis relies on the assumption that gender is a social cleavage (even though it has not been considered as such by mainstream political science), and is developed through the following hypotheses: 1) right-wing populist parties act as niche parties in the representation of gender needs, demands and worries; 2) voters of right-wing populist parties are rational (including women); 3) the gender utility derived from voting right-wing populist parties is different for men and women.