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Laicismo: trampa de idolatría o nihilismo constitucional

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2022-01-28
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Universidad Pablo de Olavide
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Soberanía y laicismo son dos conceptos que están adquiriendo protagonismo en los debates públicos de su país nativo, Francia. Este artículo propone abordar ambos desde dos perspectivas. La primera, etimológica, que intenta indagar el origen del concepto de "laicismo" desde el siglo XV y construir una definición conforme a su uso dado durante el Antiguo Régimen y durante el primer siglo de la revolución, hasta la ley de neutralización-emancipación de 1905, pasando por la envoltura normativa del Estado con la religión, el populistamente denominado Estado laico. La segunda, poner de relieve el antagonismo que suponía la convivencia de ese término con la soberanía propugnada por la revolución y los postulados centristas de los imperios que alimentaron la ideología de la ley de separación de 1905. La conclusión que se pretende alcanzar, y enlazar para sucesivos trabajos, es que el resurgimiento del concepto y su asalto a la Constitución de 1958 consiste en un antagonismo, tanto con su etimología como con la propia constitución, causando, más que idolatría, un entramado de nihilismo constitucional, o incluso una especie de blasfemia normativa a favor del populismo político.
The concept of sovereignty and laicism still being instrumented into different projection to that's which have been conceived and used for through the french revolution and the old regime. This article is not to discuss that, but to delight how another concept deduced from it becomes antagonistic with it in the French context. Laicity referred to the French V constitution, or the act of 1905, it's not what it appear, and mostly known in the french literature, this article is to reject all that, and go toward an etymological construction of the concept into the french politics since XV century. Then to examination who and how the old regime, and the XIX century have been involved with the religious beliefs then to answer the questions: does the revolution have been laic or atheist? The answer is useful to go forward the examination of the french act of the separation of the State from the churches of 1905, and to determine if that act has been laic or atheist. The questions of how the idea of laicism has been reversed into the interwar period thus to the 1958 constitution to be developed in a further work, but the conclusion proposed here is the evidence of constitutional inter-contradiction and reversed usage of the concept which is being instrumented today further then a constitutional idolatry, but a constitutional nihilism.
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Revista internacional de pensamiento político, ISSN 1885-589X, Nº. 16, 2021, págs. 333-356
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