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Analysis of the use of cylindrospermopsin and/or microcystin-contaminatedwater in the growth, mineral content, and contamination of spinacia oleracea and lactuca sativa

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2019-08-22
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MDPI
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Cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins constitute a serious environmental and human health problem. Moreover, concerns are raised with the use of contaminated water in agriculture and vegetable production as this can lead to food contamination and human exposure to toxins as well as impairment in crop development and productivity. The objective of this work was to assess the susceptibility of two green vegetables, spinach and lettuce, to the cyanotoxins microcystin (MC) and cylindrospermopsin (CYN), individually and in mixture. The study consisted of growing both vegetables in hydroponics, under controlled conditions, for 21 days in nutrient medium doped with MC or CYN at 10 g/L and 50 g/L, or CYN/MC mixture at 5 + 5 g/L and 25 + 25 g/L. Extracts from M. aeruginosa and C. ovalisporum were used as sources of toxins. The study revealed growth inhibition of the aerial part (Leaves) in both species when treated with 50 g/L of MC, CYN and CYN/MC mixture. MC showed to be more harmful to plant growth than CYN. Moreover spinach leaves growth was inhibited by both 5 + 5 and 25 + 25 g/L CYN/MC mixtures, whereas lettuce leaves growth was inhibited only by 25 + 25 g/L CYN/MC mixture. Overall, growth data evidence increased sensitivity of spinach to cyanotoxins in comparison to lettuce. On the other hand, plants exposed to CYN/MC mixture showed di erential accumulation of CYN and MC. In addition, CYN, but not MC, was translocated from the roots to the leaves. CYN and MC a ected the levels of minerals particularly in plant roots. The elements most a ected were Ca, K and Mg. However, in leaves K was the mineral that was a ected by exposure to cyanotoxins.
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AGL2015-64558-R
AGR-7252
UID/Multi/04423/2019
Marie Skłodowska-Curie grant agreement No 823860
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Analysis of the use of cylindrospermopsin and/or microcystin-contaminatedwater in the growth, mineral content, and contamination of spinacia oleracea and lactuca sativa. Llana-Ruiz-Cabello, M., Jos, A., Cameán, A., ...Vasconcelos, V., Freitas, M. Toxins, 2019, 11(11), 624
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