Pareja Blanco, Fernando

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Pareja Blanco
Universidad Pablo de Olavide
Deporte e Informática
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Educación Física y Deportiva
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PhD programs
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Now showing 1 - 5 of 5
  • Publication
    La velocidad de ejecución como factor determinante de las adaptaciones producidas por el entrenamiento de fuerza
    (2016) Pareja Blanco, Fernando; González Badillo, Juan José
    This thesis encompassed three consecutive studies that built upon each other's findings and were aimed at investigating the role played by movement velocity as a critical variable determining the adaptations to resistance training (RT). In the first study, we analyzed the effect of performing load displacement at the maximum intended velocity compared to 50% of that velocity to the same relative loads and the same number of sets and repetitions per set during RT. In addition, in the second study, we analyzed the acute and short-term response of different level of effort during the set, which induce different velocity losses. Finally, in the third study, we compared the effects of two RT programs that only differed in the magnitude of repetition velocity loss allowed in each set (20% vs. 40%) on structural and functional adaptations. Neuromuscular system adapts specifically to the stimulus to which it is subjected, resulting in increases in muscle strength (Coffey & Hawley, 2007). These stimuli are determined by a number of variables such as volume, intensity, exercise type and order, rest duration (Spiering et al., 2008), and movement velocity (Gonzalez-Badillo & Sanchez-Medina, 2010). It has been considered that movement velocity, dependent both the loading as the magnitude of effort employed to move that load, is a relevant variable especially when the goal is to improve athletics and physical performance (Crewther, Cronin, & Keogh, 2005). Several studies have compared the effects of high-velocity training respect to low-velocity training with the same load (Fielding et al., 2002; Ingebrigtsen, Holtermann, & Roeleveld, 2009; Jones, Hunter, Fleisig, Escamilla, & Lemak, 1999; Keeler, Finkelstein, Miller, & Fernhall, 2001; Kim, Dear, Ferguson, Seo, & Bemben, 2011; Morrissey, Harman, Frykman, & Han, 1998; Munn, Herbert, Hancock, & Gandevia, 2005; Pereira & Gomes, 2002; Westcott et al., 2001; Young & Bilby, 1993), but there are few works that have equaled volume and intensity in different training groups (Fielding, et al., 2002; Ingebrigtsen, et al., 2009; Jones, et al., 1999; Morrissey, et al., 1998; Munn, et al., 2005; Pereira & Gomes, 2002; Young & Bilby, 1993). Likewise, few studies have compared the effects of performing each repetition at maximal or submaximal velocity (Fielding, et al., 2002; Ingebrigtsen, et al., 2009; Jones, et al., 1999; Young & Bilby, 1993). Furthermore, in these works performed efforts next or to muscular failure, so that differences in the movement velocity in the last repetitions were reduced and tended to disappear (Jones, et al., 1999), because, regardless of the subject¿s will, velocity always ends up being equivalent to that achieved in the 1RM of this exercise (Sanchez-Medina & Gonzalez-Badillo, 2011). Despite the relevance that seems to have the movement velocity on adaptations produced in skeletal muscle in response to strength training, we have not found any work that has analyzed the mechanical and metabolic response to short and medium term caused by the application of stimuli equivalent in all variables (load, reps, sets and recovery time) except in lifting velocity. In addition none of the studies reviewed that used execution velocity as independent variable to observe the effects of this variable on physical performance has measured directly the execution velocity for all repetitions in the training protocol. Therefore, the effect of performing load displacement at the maximum intended velocity compared to 50% of that velocity to the same relative loads and the same number of sets and repetitions per set was investigated in Study I of the present Thesis. Some researchers have compared the effect of failure vs. non-failure training approaches on muscle strength gains (Drinkwater et al., 2005; Folland, Irish, Roberts, Tarr, & Jones, 2002; Izquierdo, Ibanez et al., 2006; Willardson, Emmett, Oliver, & Bressel, 2008). However, little is known about the time of course of recovery following RT protocols leading or not leading to failure (i.e. inability to complete a repetition in a full range of motion, because of fatigue). RT to failure induces a decrease in intramuscular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and phosphocreatine (PCr) concentrations (Gorostiaga et al., 2012), as well as increases in blood ammonia that could indicate an accelerated purine nucleotide degradation (Gorostiaga, et al., 2012; Sanchez-Medina & Gonzalez-Badillo, 2011), suggesting that the recovery course is increased as the repetition number approaches failure. In addition, it is known that the recovery rate differs between different body systems (Hakkinen & Pakarinen, 1993; Schumann et al., 2013). The endocrine system and the autonomic nervous system both play an important role for physical performance, as wells as for recovery and adaptation (Halson & Jeukendrup, 2004). A more detailed knowledge of the time needed to achieve full recovery in the neuromuscular, neuroendocrine and autonomic cardiovascular systems for the most widely used RT intensities leading to failure or not to failure will enable strength and conditioning coaches as well as sport scientists to establish training designs that ensure optimal adaptation effects. Traditionally, it has been hypothesized that training to failure elicits higher levels of fatigue, which might result in greater hypertrophic adaptations due to greater activation of motor units and secretion of growth-promoting hormones (Willardson, et al., 2008). However, to our best knowledge, only a single previous study has examined the effect of RT leading to failure or not on muscle hypertrophy (Sampson & Groeller, 2015). These authors observed similar changes in muscle hypertrophy between groups, concluding that repetition failure is not critical to elicit significant structural changes in human skeletal muscle at least in previously untrained individuals (Sampson & Groeller, 2015). It is suggested that acute hormonal elevations increase the likelihood of interaction with receptors (Crewther, Keogh, Cronin, & Cook, 2006), which is likely to have relevance for tissue growth and remodeling (Kraemer & Ratamess, 2005). The greater mechanical and metabolic stress induced when RT is performed to failure (Sanchez-Medina & Gonzalez-Badillo, 2011) might evoke elevated secretion of growth-promoting hormones (testosterone, growth hormone (GH), and insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1)), and catabolic hormones (cortisol). However, few data exist on the hormonal response to different repetition schemes leading to muscular failure versus not leading to contraction failure. This knowledge along with the assessment of selected indicators of muscle damage (CK) might explain the different magnitudes of hypertrophic adaptation observed in response to different RT schedules.
  • Publication
    Effects of Combined Resistance Training and Plyometrics on Physical Performance in Young Soccer Players
    (Thieme Publishing, 2015-07-16) Franco Márquez, Felipe; Rodríguez Rosell, David; González Suárez, José Manuel; Pareja Blanco, Fernando; Mora Custodio, Ricardo; Yáñez García, Juan Manuel; González Badillo, Juan José
    This study aimed to determine the effects of combined resistance training and plyometrics on physical performance in under-15 soccer players. One team (n=20) followed a 6-week resistance training program combined with plyometrics plus a soccer training program (STG), whereas another team (n=18) followed only the soccer training (CG). Strength training consisted of full squats with low load (45¿60% 1RM) and low-volume (2¿3 sets and 4¿8 repetitions per set) combined with jumps and sprints twice a week. Sprint time in 10 and 20¿m (T10, T20, T10¿20), CMJ height, estimated one-repetition maximum (1RMest), average velocity attained against all loads common to pre- and post-tests (AV) and velocity developed against different absolute loads (MPV20, 30, 40 and 50) in full squat were selected as testing variables to evaluate the effects of the training program. STG experienced greater gains (P<0.05) in T20, CMJ, 1RMest, AV and MPV20, 30, 40 and 50 than CG. In addition, STG showed likely greater effects in T10 and T10¿20 compared to CG. These results indicate that only 6 weeks of resistance training combined with plyometrics in addition to soccer training produce greater gains in physical performance than typical soccer training alone in young soccer players.
  • Publication
    Short-term Recovery Following Resistance Exercise Leading or not to Failure.
    (Thieme Publishing, 2015-12-14) González Badillo, Juan José; Rodríguez Rosell, David; Sánchez Medina, Luis; Ribas Serna, Juan; López López, Covadonga; Mora Custodio, Ricardo; Yáñez García, Juan Manuel; Pareja Blanco, Fernando
    This study analyzed the time course of recovery following 2 resistance exercise protocols differing in level of effort: maximum (to failure) vs. half-maximum number of repetitions per set. 9 males performed 3 sets of 4 vs. 8 repetitions with their 80% 1RM load, 3×4(8) vs. 3×8(8), in the bench press and squat. Several time-points from 24¿h pre- to 48¿h post-exercise were established to assess the mechanical (countermovement jump height, CMJ; velocity against the 1¿m·s¿1 load, V1-load), biochemical (testosterone, cortisol, GH, prolactin, IGF-1, CK) and heart rate variability (HRV) and complexity (HRC) response to exercise. 3×8(8) resulted in greater neuromuscular fatigue (higher reductions in repetition velocity and velocity against V1-load) than 3×4(8). CMJ remained reduced up to 48¿h post-exercise following 3×8(8), whereas it was recovered after 6¿h for 3×4(8). Significantly greater prolactin and IGF-1 levels were found for 3×8(8) vs. 3×4(8). Significant reductions in HRV and HRC were observed for 3×8(8) vs. 3×4(8) in the immediate recovery. Performing a half-maximum number of repetitions per set resulted in: 1) a stimulus of faster mean repetition velocities; 2) lower impairment of neuromuscular performance and faster recovery; 3) reduced hormonal response and muscle damage; and 4) lower reduction in HRV and HRC following exercise.
  • Publication
    Determinant Factors of Repeat Sprint Sequences in Young Soccer Players
    (Thieme Publishing, 2014-09-26) López Segovia, Manuel; Pareja Blanco, Fernando; Jiménez Reyes, Pedro; González Badillo, Juan José
    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between repeated explosive effort sequences (20+20¿m shuttle sprint with change of direction, kicking and jumping), metabolic response (lactate and ammonia), and fitness qualities (strength and endurance) in under-19 soccer players. 21 players completed: 1) sprint test: 30¿m (T30) and 40¿m (20+20¿m) shuttle sprints; 2) countermovement jumps (CMJ); 3) maximal kicking; and 4) 9 repeated-explosive effort sequences (RES); 4) a progressive isoinertial loading test in full squat to determine the load which subjects achieved ~1¿m¿·¿s¿1 (V1-load); 6) Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level 1 (YYIRT-1). Mean sprint time of the 9 repeated sprints (RSAmean1¿9) showed correlation with V1-load (r=¿¿0.52 [¿¿0.79, ¿¿0.25]) metabolic response (lactate, r=0.67 [0.47, 0.87] and ammonia, r=0.53 [0.27, 0.79]). YYIRT-1 correlated with RSAmean1-9 (rw=¿¿0.78 [¿¿0.92, ¿¿0.64]) when the body weight was controlled. Furthermore, the 3 first sprints (RSAmean1-3) correlated with RSAbest (r=0.93 [0.88, 0.98]), V1-load (r=¿¿0.64 [¿0.86, ¿¿0.42]), and T30 (r=0.63 [0.41, 0.85]). These results suggest that the soccer player¿s lower body strength (V1-load, jumping and sprinting) explains a large part of the performance in the first sequences, whereas the aerobic capacity, estimated through YYIRT-1, becomes more important to performance as the number of sprints is increases.
  • Publication
    The Evolution of Physical Performance throughout an Entire Season in Female Football Players
    (MDPI, 2024) Reyes Laredo, Francisco; Pareja Blanco, Fernando; López-Lluch, Guillermo; Rodríguez-Bies, Elisabeth
    Research on the evolution of performance throughout a season in team sports is scarce and mainly focused on men’s teams. Our aim in this study was to examine the seasonal variations in relevant indices of physical performance in female football players. Twenty-seven female football players were assessed at week 2 of the season (preseason, PS), week 7 (end of preseason, EP), week 24 (half-season, HS), and week 38 (end of season, ES). Similar to the most common used conditioning tests in football, testing sessions consisted of (1) vertical countermovement jump (CMJ); (2) 20 m running sprint (T20); (3) 25 m side-step cutting maneuver test (V-CUT); and (4) progressive loading test in the full-squat exercise (V1-LOAD). Participants followed their normal football training procedure, which consisted of three weekly training sessions and an official match, without any type of intervention. No significant time effects were observed for CMJ height (p = 0.29) and T20 (p = 0.11) throughout the season. However, significant time effects were found for V-CUT (p = 0.004) and V1-LOAD (p = 0.001). V-CUT performance significantly improved from HS to ES (p = 0.001). Significant increases were observed for V1-LOAD throughout the season: PS-HS (p = 0.009); PS-ES (p < 0.001); EP-ES (p < 0.001); and HS-ES (p = 0.009). These findings suggest that, over the course of the season, female football players experience an enhancement in muscle strength and change of direction ability. However, no discernible improvements were noted in sprinting and jumping capabilities during the same period.