Malvárez, Gonzalo

Profesor/a Titular de Universidad
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First Name
Last Name
Universidad Pablo de Olavide
Geografía, Historia y Filosofía
Research Center
Geografía Física
Research Group
Coastal Environments
Recursos Naturales, Energía y Medio Ambiente
PhD programs
Gestión del Territorio y Medio Ambiente. Riesgos naturales. Medio Costero y Marino, Historia y Estudios Humanísticos
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  • Publication
    An interdisciplinary approach to the collapse of the port and degradation of freshwater resources at Panama Viejo (Panama), 1519-1671
    (Wiley Periodicals LLC, 2024-01-24) Martos Nieto, Miriam; Aram, Bethany; Malvárez, Gonzalo
    The Archaeological Site of Panama Viejo (Panama) comprises a protected area of 28 km2 within present-day Panama City, on America's Pacific coast. In 1519, the Spaniards founded the city of Panama Viejo to secure a natural port in an area inhabited by indigenous peoples since at least the eighth century CE. The site, along the coastline and between two rivers, became a principal gateway for goods and people travelling between Europe and Pacific settlements to the east (Realejo) and the west (Trujillo, Lima, Arica). Within one century, however, Panama Viejo's natural port and freshwater infrastructure collapsed, leading to the city's relocation after corsairs attacked it in 1671. This study combines archaeological, geographical and historical analyses to explain how and why human interactions with the local environment made the settlement increasingly untenable.